What is follicular cyst?
Endocrine diseases occupy quite a big niche among the pathologies of the internal organs. In the first place in women is follicular cyst, which is found in almost every second patient with disorders of the menstrual cycle. Let’s see, what is a follicular cyst, why it develops, what consequences can follow its development.
Anatomy of the female reproductive system
As you know, the female reproductive system consists of internal and external genitalia. The main ones are the ovaries, as they are responsible for the formation of the oocyte and subsequent fertilization. All other bodies are mainly used for holding gametes or fixing of a fertilized egg. The ovary is composed of follicles, each of which is ovulation. The number of follicles is fixed, that is, the number of female sex cells is pre-determined by the body.
Of egg maturation cycles. Time of maturation is 14 days. There is a rupture of the follicle with subsequent release of the ovum into the abdominal cavity. If fertilization does not occur, the egg dies, and the place of the ruptured follicle, the formation of white body filling the cavity of the follicle connective tissue.
If there is no release of the egg and rupture of the follicle, it starts to leak than from natural processes. Cavity of follicle is filled with fluid, resulting in and formed a follicular cyst.
The types and causes of cystic lesions of the ovary
- A true cyst. Develops inside the tissue of the ovary in violation of bookmarks normal tissue. These formations are present before birth and usually do not cause any inconvenience (only in case if it is infection and suppuration).
- A follicular cyst.
- Eritrodermia – congenital formation of the ovary that develops as a result of falling on the stage of ontogenesis of endometrial tissue in the ovary.
Why were most often formed cysts in the ovaries? The causes leading to their development, the following:
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases. Are the main cause of development of formations of ovarian tissue. Can lead to the development of infertility result from changes in the structure of most genital organs.
- Hypoplasia or dysfunction of the ovaries. As mentioned above, due to the violation of the natural development of the female reproductive system most often congenital cysts are formed. Follicular changes are observed in underdeveloped and small in size the ovaries.
- Psychogenic disorders. Quite often the mental level of a woman can affect the majority occurring in the body processes. Frequent stress, physical and mental fatigue can lead to hormonal changes that ultimately leads to changes in the structure of the ovary and subsequent development of cysts.
- Selection in follicular cyst
The resulting impact of all these factors develops a follicular cyst, the causes of which are not always able to determine immediately. A few limps and primary diagnosis of the disease. In this connection it is necessary to thoroughly investigate what are the clinical signs and symptoms most often are basic and are manifested primarily in the development of cystic formations.
There may be a few options:
- Experience a long delay period, after which they proceeds normally.
- Gradual release of bloody fluid from the genital tract throughout the menstrual cycle.
- These symptoms are accompanied by feeling of discomfort in the abdomen, moderate pulling pain, strengthen her during intercourse.
- Rather characteristic symptom of follicular cysts is a reduction below basal temperature 36.8 degrees.
A decrease in basal temperature during the follicular kitase named signs do not allow to make a diagnosis, but only differentiate the disease from other diseases of the pelvic organs.
In order to diagnose a follicular cyst of the ovary, it is necessary to conduct a more thorough examination with the determination of changes in the analysis and study of the bodies with the help of instrumental methods.
Diagnosis of the disease
What studies were needed for the diagnosis of follicular type of cysts?
Primarily about the development of this education can indicate features such as the delay period and their later subsequent offensive. The act of menstruation is accompanied by aching pain in the abdomen and feeling of heaviness.
Multiple follicular cysts may provoke the disappearance of menstruation, which women often perceive this condition as early pregnancy.
As mentioned above, common symptoms of development of cyst is decrease the basal temperature.
In some cases it is necessary to conduct studies of cervical mucus. Changes in its structure can push on the idea of insolvency of the endocrine system of the female body and allow to suspect development of cysts.
Laboratory studies have no significant role in the diagnosis of follicular cyst. Indirect signs, manifested in its development, are anemia (due to heavy subsequent menstrual period or recurrent bleeding), increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Ultrasound for the diagnosis of follicular mistyblue reliable information is provided by biochemical studies, in particular, measurement of the level of the major sex hormones – estrogen (as is usually the wall of ovarian follicles unable to produce these substances).
The most informative method of diagnosis of follicular cystic masses is the ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs and ovaries. During the procedure unable to detect cystic deformation of the walls of the ovary, identify modified follicles to determine their size and shape.
Complications of follicular cysts
In some cases an ovarian cyst may develop into a significant threat, even death. The main complications that develop in this disease are:
- Torsion of the ovary. Threat of urgent condition which can result in untimely delivery of medical care to a patient’s death. Develops with the size of the cysts more than 5 mm.
- Rupture of the cyst. Most often seen in intense exercise or injuries of the abdomen. There is acute abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea. Can detect symptoms of acute peritonitis.
- Internal bleeding (or ovarian apoplexy). Extremely dangerous condition that develops when the ruptured cyst and passing near the vessel. Can lead to death of the patient, if you do not take the necessary precautions.
All these diseases require emergency ultrasound and provide high quality medical care with the aim of preserving life and subsequent fertility.
How to get rid of disease?
Like most diseases, the cyst requires a comprehensive approach in their treatment. If identified education does not exceed 2-3 mm in size, the doctors do not resort to specific treatment, but only observe the state of the cyst and the patient. If it is not observed the growth of cyst follicle, the treatment may be delayed for an indefinite period.
Therapy exposed cysts exceeding the size of 4-5 mm.
The medication is being taken with hormonal contraceptives.
These drugs help restore hormonal background, contribute to the release of an egg from the cysts and restoring normal menstrual cycle.
In most cases, such treatment leads to complete degradation of the cysts and restore hormonal balance. Additionally, to enhance the effect of the treatment can be used homeopathic remedies and combined vitamin complexes.
In addition (or as an independent method) you can use procedures such as magnetic therapy, electrophoresis. Data physiotherapy improves blood flow in the ovary and regulates the flow therein of metabolic processes and exchange reactions, as well as contribute to the restoration of normal hormonal.
Drug treatment of follicular citiesi ongoing conservative treatment is ineffective, it is necessary to resort to operative treatment.
Advantages of surgical intervention are rapid time operation, the ability to do it under General anesthesia, a quick recovery period.
Low invasiveness of the operation is due to the fact that it make 1-2 small puncture, through which pass the endoscope.
The size of the transaction allocate a total (complete removal of ovaries, held in its open or apoplexy) or partial (removal of just the cyst or of the ovaries).
A few days after the operation the patient can return to your daily activities.
Hormonal balance is restored more slowly, however, a possibility of its recovery and subsequent pregnancy.
What you need to do to prevent the development of follicular cysts?
Prevention of the disease consists of several stages:
- The first step is to completely eliminate the possibility of development of cyst. This is done thanks to the timely passage of preventive and angiomata gynecologist, treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system. It is especially important to conduct all laboratory tests, as their changes allow to suspect the disease at an early stage.
- Another step includes preventing the re-development of cysts in the ovary. Early prevention (in postoperative period) is the frequent routine examinations of the gynecologist, the determination of estrogen levels and some biochemical parameters. It is particularly important to account for all women with unstable menstrual cycle as the symptoms of menstrual disorders are the debut in the development of the cyst.
Pregnancy and the follicular cyst
As various studies have shown that during ovulation is the destruction of one follicle and release of only one egg.
Thus, fertilization involves only one ovary. If it formed a cyst, it can not participate in the fertilization process until, until there is regression of the ovary.
Very rarely it happens that the formation of follicular cysts in the ovary that occurs during pregnancy.
This condition carries a certain risk to the fetus, so as to maintain the pregnancy inhibited the natural production of estrogen, which can trigger the development of miscarriage. Thus, if you do not remove the cyst can cause premature birth or intrauterine fetal death.
In such cases, doctors adhere to the following tactics: to 17 weeks, the patient is observed regularly by a gynecologist, and at the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy in the absence of contraindications performed endoscopic removal of the cyst.