The procedure of biopsy of the cervix
When the patient raises the suspicion of a malignant tumor on the cervix, doctors for studies used biopsy of the cervix. It’s such a medical procedure during which the patient takes a small piece of mucous membrane, which is studied in the laboratory. The results of the biopsy of the cervix allows to detect cancer, if it is, at the very beginning of development.
This is the most important to indicate the biopsy of the cervix. After all, if disease of this kind to be detected in its very conception, the probability of a positive outcome is very high. The earlier discovered and removed the tumor, the greater the confidence that the disease will not have time to spread throughout the body, metastases will not release its tentacles, and the disease would liberate man from the clutches.
When doing a biopsy and contraindications when using treatments
Every woman must undergo periodic examination by a gynecologist. This should be done not if then there is any discomfort or something hurts. Should be checked regularly. If during the inspection gynecologist finds on mucous something suspicious, immediately assigned a biopsy of the cervix. What can alert the gynecologist?
First, the presence of papillomas on, erosions or any other tumors. And, of course, color. If any area of the mucous membrane of the cervix will change its color – it may be that alarmed.
In addition, the analysis of the mandatory prescribed if there is suspicion of the following diseases:
- cervical dysplasia;
- cervical cancer;
Contraindications not so much, but still, they are, and you cannot ignore them. All the reasons for the ban on biopsy are associated with the possible disease of the patient and her reproductive system and the whole organism.
Cervical biopsy involves very minor surgery, but surgery is always a possibility of bleeding, in this case uterine. Because those who have observed poor blood clotting, such a procedure is undesirable. The fact that the cervix consists of a huge number of blood vessels, and any surgical procedure, bleeding can be quite profuse. For patients with poor blood clotting, it threatens a large blood loss. While for women, in which blood clotting is normal, there is no such risk or it is practically zero.
However, in life there are very few diseases that are directly related to poor blood clotting. Therefore, the main contraindication for biopsy are infection, sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, etc.).
Smear on the microflora and infections of legalisatie than to send for a biopsy, the doctor should review the patient’s tests for STIs. To identify it is not so difficult, just take a swab and check for PCR diagnostics. If the result is positive, no biopsy. And for those whose tests these infections are found, a biopsy of the cervix is prescribed immediately, without a justified necessity with the analysis of delay is not worth it.
Why when the STI can’t do a biopsy? Because the fungus and bacteria that accompany a sexually transmitted disease, a biopsy can easily penetrate into the damaged mucosa procedure and is able (and often exactly what happens!) to cause severe inflammatory process.
If the patient detected infections that are sexually transmitted, it is first prescribe antibiotics. The second analysis found no genital infections – it is possible to proceed to biopsy of the cervix.
Preparation for the procedure
Since a biopsy is a surgical intervention, it can be carried out solely in the absence of even the slightest infectious diseases of the reproductive system.
Therefore, before a mini-operation takes smear on the pathological flora. If it is negative – biopsy green light. In the case of a positive result in the near future, to eliminate all diseases on the analysis of the question can not be.
Biomaterial take immediately as soon as the patient ends her menses during the biopsy the woman pinch off a piece of cervical mucus.
It is very important that until the next month all healed. To tighten the wounds, as a rule, enough 2 weeks maximum.
From the patients themselves preparation for the procedure is often accompanied by a question about hurt to do a biopsy of the cervix? It’s a pretty interesting question. On the one hand, the cervix is one of the few organs that has no nerve endings. Accordingly, during the sampling of material for research on cancer pain is not.
The scheme is a biopsy of the cervix (conchotomy)on the other hand, the fear to feel pain or even just discomfort causes muscles, including those that are in the uterus, strained. During a biopsy the uterus reacts spasms. This is what causes the unpleasant feeling. It should be noted that it is not very painful, it can be compared with those pulling sensations in the abdomen that accompany my period. However, the more a woman is tense, the stronger these unpleasant sensations and uterine cramps are felt more acutely.
In this case, if the deal with their fear and anxiety a woman can not, it is possible analgesia using lidocaine (a drug, you need to spray the area where the surgery will be performed). An experienced specialist should immediately notice the anxiety of the patient and offer her the option of anesthesia. After all, the very understanding that during surgery anesthesia is used, already set for peace of mind and the confidence that it won’t hurt.
And most importantly, that includes preparing for a biopsy of the cervix, is taking the patient’s written consent that she voluntarily makes the analysis.
Methods biopsy of the cervix
The methods by performing a biopsy of the cervix, there are many. The classification is based on the fact, what method are sampling a sample. There are several different methods of biopsy of the cervix:
- Colposcopic (or puncture). In this case, the fence fabric making, using a very fine needle, and the material for the study is examined under a microscope.
- Radiowave. For sampling for tests using apparatus “Surgitron”.
- Laser. This biopsy involves removing tissue with a laser, i.e. a laser knife.
- Conchotomy. According to the principle of the fence is very similar to colposcopic. They differ in that instead of the needles used by canhoto – special surgical instrument resembling externally a pair of scissors with sharpened edges.
- Loop (looped). For a sampling of material is used very thin wire, twisted into a loop is performed, through which a weak electric current.
- Wedge-shaped (cervical conization). This type of biopsy is one of the few that are the advanced analysis (hands-most are aiming). Cervical take a triangular piece (wedge-shaped), the study of which gives the most complete result on the problem.
- Circular (circular). Kind of a wedge biopsy. The fence material is performed using laser or a scalpel. The material for the study includes not only the tissue of the cervix, but also the part of the channel.
- Trepanobiopsy. The essence of the method lies in the fact that the material, which will study, taking in several affected areas.
- Curettage of the endocervical canal. This method of biopsy is radically different from the above, as it involves scraping of the cervical canal (not the uterus).
What is the procedure?
As methods of operation quite a lot, the actions of the physician in each of them will be slightly different. Which method to choose is solved in each case with each patient individually.
For the biopsy, the patient is placed in normal gynecological chair. Doing General anesthesia in rare cases, as a rule, mostly do local anesthesia, and the patient is always conscious.
Tools that will be used during the operation depend on how to do a biopsy of the cervix, i.e., by what method will provide the material for study.
The first thing the doctor inserts into the vagina gynecological mirror. This will allow him to see the cervix, which then direct bright light. Using instruments for biopsy of the cervix, the doctor removes the tissue, causing suspicion, and directs them to the study. The procedure does not take much time: an hour, usually more than enough. After this patient, quietly go home.
Visual diagnosis of cervical cancer on examining individual cases, a biopsy of the cervix performed in a hospital under General anesthesia. To decide whether the patient hospitalization, can only physician. In cases where it determines that still need follow his advice unquestioningly. The time of the operation increases, may be up to one and a half hours. After the biopsy the patient may be asked to stay in the hospital under observation for 1-2 days.
Transcript of analysis results requires appropriate training, so this can only be made by a doctor.
Consequences of the procedure
Almost every patient observed discharge after biopsy of the cervix. Their duration and profusion depends on many factors, including the method of sampling and the individual characteristics of the organism. For example, radio-wave cervical biopsy gives scant discharge, which can last usually only 2-3 days, and no symptoms. But the blood after a biopsy of the cervix performed the loopback method, there can be abundant as during menstruation, and bleeding lasts from 5 to 7 days.
Temperature is the result of the biopsy of the cervix matkiv this case it is important to understand that after the biopsy you should not use tampons. If spotting is allowed to use only spacers. Douching is prohibited.
The effects of biopsy of the cervix often occur in elevated temperature. Because the operation is in any case stress, which causes this increase. In addition, there is always the risk that after the operation there were complications of an infectious nature. If the body temperature suddenly exceeds 37,5°C, should immediately contact the doctor to establish the cause of illness.
Normal after biopsy CMM are abdominal pain and in the depths of the vagina. To panic in this case it is not necessary that the symptoms will pass by themselves.
After taking the mucosal tissues of the cervix for biopsy is not recommended to have sex at least during the week.
Possible complications after the procedure
After the biopsy, possibly opening the bleeding. It is important to understand when this phenomenon is normal and when the signal to alarm. Best before the procedure to consult a doctor about possible consequences, and if something happens after will be different, immediately seek advice. For example, if a physician warned that the allocation of scant bloody nature can be uncomfortable for 2-3 weeks and in your case it’s been more than 20 days, it is not just the situation when it is worth considering – should immediately go to the inspection.
In some cases after a biopsy on the cervix can remain scars. Most often this occurs when used a wedge-shaped or loop biopsy. Some patients this can cause problems with pregnancy, and as conceiving and carrying a child. So if you had a biopsy and you are planning to have a baby, be sure to inform the gynecologist about the operations.