What you might find rod flora in the smear?
Bacteriological smear helps to assess the condition of the female reproductive system. Rod flora in smear of women may be normal or show pathogenic deviations. In the second case we are talking about gynecological diseases and even infections that infect exclusively sexually transmitted.
Taking bacterial smear on flora is carried out in all women as a preventive measure. However, its necessity can specify, and the patient’s complaints, which she expresses gynaecologist (abdominal pain, unpleasant odor and burning sensation). These symptoms are the first sign of bacterial vaginosis. Their suspicions the doctor must confirm the analyses. For what it is and makes bacterioscopy – the study of the composition of the vaginal flora under the microscope. Breakdown of smear results in a few days will show how justified the suspicions of the gynecologist.
Which sticks can show the decoding of the smear?
Bacillus can meet two types of doderlein Bacillus or small sticks. Both may have some impact on the health of the female reproductive system. The main thing – time to notice pathogenic deviations.
Useful doderlein Bacillus
Doderlein Bacillus named after the German obstetrician-gynecologist with the same surname Doderlein A. These fixed bacteria have a relatively large size, they do not form spores. Other names – gram-positive rods, or vaginal acidophilus bacilli, lactobacilli.
Due to the presence of sticks Dederleyna in the woman’s vagina is dominated by acidic pH environment, which plays the role of a filter in the selection grade in terms of sperm viability. In the acidic environment of the sick and weakened male sex cells are killed and cannot pass the secondary selection.
In addition, useful bacillary flora is responsible for the cleanliness of the reproductive tract through the formation of hydrogen peroxide secreted into the cavity of the vagina. The purity control is participating lysozyme (a natural antibiotic).
Also gram-positive rods are initiators of activity of macrophages. The latter, in turn, are struggling with various alien pathogenic microorganisms entered into the body. Macrophages eat foreign bacteria and protozoa pathogens such as trichomoniasis and gonorrhea, once inside of the vagina.
The involvement of the sticks Dederleyna to the synthesis of specific antibodies and biologically active substances. In cooperation with leukocytes useful bacillary flora takes part in the strengthening of local and General immune defense of the body.
Doderlein Bacillus, even in considerable number are seen as a sign of a healthy condition of the vagina and does not indicate the presence of any disease. Not surprised by the gynecologist and the situation in which lactobacilli found isolated leukocytes, the number of which does not exceed 10 units per one cm2.
Sticks of Nederlander can be alerted that a reduced number of gram-positive Bacillus in a smear. This may indicate the presence in the patient of the disease of bacterial vaginosis.
Relevant content sticks Dederleyna determines the degree of purity of the stroke. Only there are 4 degrees:
- Many sticks Dederleyna, isolated leukocytes, flora is poor and is mainly useful bacillary.
- The high content of lactobacilli, up to 10 leukocytes in sight, flora and vegetation.
- From 10 to 30 leukocytes in the visual field, gram-positive sticks a little, and the flora is represented by sticks, and cocci (spherical bacteria), that is combined.
- Leukocytes mainly cover the flora, rod-shaped flora in the smear are of cocci (lactobacilli are not marked), a large amount of mucus.
In women, having regular sexual relations, there is a mixed flora in the smear at the end or beginning of the menstrual cycle when estrogen production is reduced. Mixed flora may be evidence of the presence of gynecological diseases or infection obtained through sexual contact.
In addition, mixed flora was found in girls before puberty, women in menopause or in reproductive age with ovarian pathology (overactive).
The detection of small rod-flora in the smear is alarming. Because small sticks indicates an unfavorable clinical picture of the female vagina.
If the results of the analysis is dominated by small sticks, then the doctor may suspect disease of the reproductive organs – vaginal dysbiosis or gardnerellosis.
The abundance of small rod-flora in the smear is always a health hazard, since the female body is weakened and unable to resist the onslaught of infection and disease-causing pathogens. In such a situation, the doctor will prescribe a comprehensive treatment with the most effective scheme of antimicrobial therapy.
What diagnosis can put a doctor in case of deviations in rod-shaped flora?
On the basis of reducing lactic acid rods Dederleyna and increase the number of small sticks with key cells (epithelial cells surrounded by small sticks) can be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis. This pathology can be similar to other pathologies of the vagina symptoms. It may not be noticed by a woman. This is dangerous, and vaginosis. Therefore, of special importance is the timely detection of pathology and its correction.
Signs of bacterial vaginosis:
- bright (white-gray) vaginal discharge;
- sour smell reminiscent of fish;
- itching in the genitals;
- pain during intercourse and while urinating.
Bacterial vaginosis is sometimes confused with the manifestations of thrush. But this is a different disease, causing serious damage to women’s health, they require correct and adequate treatment. If left untreated bacterial vaginosis, it can be a long time to annoy the woman a certain sense of discomfort. And chronic stage of the disease will require a more lengthy and costly treatment.
The rapid development of the Gardnerella completely suppresses the normal microflora. Visually the vagina occupied by Gardnerella, reveals a white bloom on its surface. The diagnosis is made after confirmation by microscopy. The diagnosis can be confirmed by the determination of acidity of the vagina, colposcopy. On the basis of the smear analyze the degree of reduction in the number of lactobacilli. Can also be assigned citogramma bacterial vaginosis.
Treatment of bacterial vaginosis is conducted in two stages. The first shows the antibacterial agents that inhibit the activity of harmful bacteria: preparations of Metronidazole and Clindamycin in the form of vaginal plugs, gels or in the form of pills, in systemic use. The second phase involves “moving” the vagina of beneficial lactic acid microflora. This is assigned to the appropriate diet (which includes dairy products and sauerkraut), auxiliary preparations of lactic acid bacteria. The drugs may be administered only after confirming the lack of thrush.
More serious disease of the female genitalia caused by Gardnerella is gardnerellosis. If not treated gardnerellosis, to put the development of the disease to chance, then this situation threatens to result in unpleasant consequences – inflammation of the vagina (non-specific vaginitis) or infection.
In women with a predominance of Gardnerella increases the predisposition to various venereal diseases, which in the future will have to treat hard enough. And inflammatory processes in organs of small pelvis, which can occur on the background of gardnerellosis, can cause female infertility. Due to the presence of the Gardnerella high risk of developing endometritis or adnexitis. It also adversely affects female reproductive health.
Often is the line that separates normal flora from pathogenic rod-shaped, erased, which leads to the disease of the feminine.
About the presence of his patient may not suspect. And not to miss the time necessary for effective treatment, is required promptly to see the deflection of the flora in the smear.