What is dangerous and what is endometrial polyp
Among gynecological pathologies often found in such diseases as endometrial polyp. A polyp is called a benign tumor, which is small in size. Polyps are single and multiple. They are formed on the mucous membrane of the uterus or cervix. The endometrium is the inner layer of the uterus. Polyps very rarely transform into a malignant tumor. Despite this, the treatment of polyposis should be timely.
What is the etiology, symptoms and treatment of endometrial polyp?
Features of an endometrial polyp
Endometrial polyp is education, which has a thin stalk or a wide base. The shape of the polyps resemble a mushroom. They are outgrowths of the endometrium.
The structure madelieine time, this pathology may not be evident. The magnitude of these formations varies from 1-2 mm to several centimeters. The larger the polyp, the more severe are the clinical symptoms of the disease. The disease attacks both young girls and older women. The peak incidence is in the period before menopause. This is due to hormonal changes in the body.
The proportion of endometrial polyps in the General structure of women’s diseases is 20%. In most cases these tumors are located within the mucosa of the uterus. In some cases they are able to germinate in the
vagina. Polyps refer to precancerous diseases. Malignancy is observed in 1-2% of cases. The following types of polyps:
The latter are more likely to cause cancer. Adenomatous polyps are subject to mandatory histological examination and removal. Glandular endometrial polyp develops predominantly in young girls. The fibrous formation are more common in women older than 40 years. Separate placental polyps. They often develop on the background of abortion and childbirth.
Possible etiological factors
The exact cause of the formation of uterine polyps is unknown yet. There are the following predisposing factors:
- the elevated level of estrogen with lack of progesterone;
- artificial abortion;
- the presence of diabetes;
- scraping uterine cavity;
- inflammatory diseases of the genital organs;
- physical inactivity;
Often glandular polyp of endometrium develops in women suffering from hypertension, thyroid disease, mental disorders. Functional endometrial polyp most often due to hormonal imbalance. Not always an indication of disease. The reason may be physiological changes (pregnancy, childbirth, abortion, use of hormonal drugs).
When you change hormonal levels there is a thickening of the endometrium. This is a triggering factor for the formation of polyps. Risk factor of the disease is pathology of the ovaries. Equally important is the presence of chronic disease (adnexitis, oophoritis, endometritis, cervicitis), and sexually transmitted infections. To cause the formation of endometrial polyps can some medications (Tamoxifen).
As the disease appears
Weakness is a symptom of a polyp endometrectomy the presence of an endometrial polyp in the uterus can be scarce. The condition can cause the following symptoms:
- uterine bleeding;
- the increase in bleeding during menstruation;
- pallor of the skin;
- decreased performance;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- discomfort during sexual contact.
Most patients women the temperature remains in the normal range. Glandular neoplasm in its symptoms resembles a benign tumor of the uterus (fibroids) and endometriosis.
In normal healthy women blood loss during menstruation is not more than 150 ml in the presence of a glandular polyp of endometrium functional type, the amount allocated to the blood increases. The woman has often to change pads and tampons on the net.
During menstruation very often there is pain. For heavy bleeding, not associated with a cycle, may decrease the level of hemoglobin and erythrocytes. Anemia. Violated sexual function. Some patients after sexual contacts are observed spotting from the genital tract. When the endometrium adenomatous polyp of large size or any other possible pain in the abdomen. Most often they are cramping and constant. A sign of the presence of polyps are Beli. They represent a mucous discharge of white color.
Not everyone knows how dangerous is a polyp of the uterus. For possible complications of this disease include infertility, risk of preterm birth and a natural miscarriage. Infertility is the most severe consequence of the disease for young women who have never given birth.
The plan of inspection of women
Treatment under the control of gynecologically polyp is performed only after a complete pelvic examination and rule out other pathology of the pelvic organs (endometritis, endometriosis, fibroids, adnexitis, vaginitis). For diagnosis you will need the following studies:
- General analysis of blood and urine;
- gynecological examination with mirrors;
- Ultrasound of the uterus, its appendages (ovaries, fallopian tubes), bladder;
- x-ray examination of the uterus (micrographia);
- histological examination of material taken in the process of scraping.
Ultrasound examination allows to assess the condition of the pelvic organs. It is very effective in the presence of fibrous and mixed polyps. The expansion of the hollow body, the presence of a formation of rounded with a homogeneous structure – all signs of the presence of a polyp.
With a simple gynecological examination to determine education in the region of the uterus is not always possible. The most informative method of diagnosis is hysteroscopy. At hysteroscopy the endometrial polyp is difficult not to detect. In the course of it by means of special optical device to be inspected, the cavity of the uterus.
In most cases raskusyvanii glandular endometrial polyp and any other species found in the region of the uterine fundus or in the corners. In the course of this procedure may be deleted. After removal of a tumor is sent to the laboratory so as to distinguish adenomatous polyps from glandular and malignant tumours is difficult.
Treatment of patients women
Ultrasound for the diagnosis of a polyp in endometrioma patients wonder whether to dissolve the endometrial polyp. These tumors are able to disperse on their own, but it happens not always. A number of drugs accelerates the process of resorption. Despite this, the presence of recurrent endometrial polyp or any other required surgical intervention. Experienced doctors know whether to remove endometrial polyp. This is necessary to prevent possible complications (malignancy, compression of surrounding tissues, infertility). Glandular endometrial polyp and all the rest (adenomatous, fibrous, and mixed) require the removal.
Most often, education of the endometrium removed by endoscopic method. This is done during the hysteroscopy. Removed education otkruchivaniem movements. After the removal is required to cauterize the base of the polyp. Most often, this
procedure is applied liquid nitrogen. After removal of tumors require scraping of the uterine cavity. After 3-4 days, you must re-instrumental examination (ultrasound).
The antiseptic in the treatment of polyps in endometriosis often patients complain of discharge after removal of an endometrial polyp from the genital tract. This is a normal reaction to the surgery. Spotting mixed with blood and abdominal pain are temporary. They disappear within 10 days.
Complications after removal of endometrial polyp are rare. The most frequent of them – the recurrence of the disease. Removal of tumors is not the final stage of therapy. Further treatment depends on the type of polyp. In case of detection of glandular or fibro-glandular formations, it is necessary to accept hormonal preparations. Widely used drugs such as Janine, Regulon, cough medicine, antiseptic on a Monitor. If in the course of histological studies established that the polyp is adenomatous, and sick old age, requires a more radical treatment (removal of the uterus).
How to prevent the disease
Proper nutrition for the prevention of polyps in endometrectomy to prevent the development of adenomatous polyp of the uterus is required to observe the following recommendations:
- to lead a healthy lifestyle;
- not to engage in casual sex;
- timely and fully to treat diseases of the genital organs;
- eat a healthy diet;
- monitor body weight;
- to refuse abortion;
- to prevent unwanted pregnancies;
- to move more.
To prevent complications the first symptoms of the disease should consult a gynecologist. Specific prevention of polyps of the uterus is not developed. Even with timely treatment, the disease can occur again. The frequent recurrence increases the likelihood of developing a malignant tumor.
Thus, conservative treatment when polyposis is not always gives a positive effect. The main method of treatment – removal of polyp (polypectomy). You should not self-medicate.