Cervical cancer – signs and symptoms
You should know that cancer of the uterus, the signs and symptoms which most often occur in women aged 40-60 years old, is a dangerous disease. Rare malignant tumor diagnosed in women younger than 40 years.
Certain causes of cancer of the uterus are absent. On the development of the pathology direct influence of the following factors:
- late menopause (after 50);
- the absence of pregnancy.
Fatigue is a symptom of cancer matkiv risk include women who have had breast cancer. Scientists have shown that treatment with oral contraceptives reduces the risk of development of malignant tumors of the uterus. Regular adoption of tablets or drops (1 year) protects the female body from the formation of a malignant tumor for 10 years.
The first symptoms of cancer of the uterus in women are manifested in the form of a bloody vaginal discharge. After menopause my period is not coming. The appearance of any bleeding points to the development of cervical cancer. In this case, it is urgently recommended to consult a gynecologist.
Regardless of menopause and age experts identify the following symptoms of a malignant tumor:
- drawing pain in the abdomen, lower back;
- bleeding during intercourse;
Visual diagnosis of cervical cancer makepri manifestation of the aforementioned symptoms, you will need to
make an appointment to the gynecologist. Otherwise, you will die. If the disease is diagnosed in pregnant women, the pregnancy is interrupted and the uterus is removed.
Experts distinguish 4 stages, how does how uterine cancer:
- Easy – in the first stage, it is impossible to make an accurate diagnosis. Malignant tumor penetrates through the mucous membrane of the female organs on the wall of the female organ. The symptoms of cervical cancer occur slightly (discharge, similar to discharge during menses). At this stage, the disease is cured in 80% of cases.
- The average cancer is transferred to the cervix, but the surrounding organs are not affected. Women experience the following symptoms of uterine cancer: pain in the abdomen and back, weight in the middle of the perineum, fever. The chances to cure cancer of the uterus in the second stage is equal to 70-80%.
- Stage 3 is characterized by the transition of the tumor to adjacent organs and lymph nodes. The symptoms of cervical cancer occur in each case individually. The patient can lose weight, feel weak. With timely diagnosis of cancer of the uterus in women in the third stage, cured in 60% of cases.
- Stage 4 – severe form, in which adjacent organs are affected by tumor metastases appear. Secondary foci of the disease are transferred to adjacent organs, affecting their livelihoods. Women recover in 35% of cases.
In order to identify cancer of the uterus, the specialist use a variety of diagnostic methods. General gynecological examination excludes the presence
of other diseases of the female genital organs. Bimanual vaginal examination is accompanied by bleeding. Bleeding when the doctor searched for tumors in the uterus.
If necessary, the gynecologist conducts a bimanual rectal examination. If the cancer has reached stage 3 and began to spread farther, then the doctor will examine the rectum. Additional methods of research doctors include mirror examination. To determine the cancer at an early stage specialists take a swab of the cervix for cytologic examination or biopsy is carried out scraping.
For this investigation the patient hospitalitynet. Curettage is performed under anesthesia. The study of the tissues will help the doctor determine the type of cancer.
Transvaginal ultrasound for the diagnosis of cancer of madasamy common type is adenocarcinoma (cancer of glandular cells). Less likely to diagnose squamous cell carcinoma or papillary malignant tumor. In the latter case appear small papillae.
To decrypt the result of the analysis will take 1-2 weeks. To learn the characteristics of the reproductive organs (structure, size, and structure of the ovaries and fallopian tubes), the doctor performs an ultrasound of the uterus. Experts recommend the use of radiological methods of diagnosing cervical cancer – the outflow, lymphangiography, MRI, cystoscopy, pyelography.
The scheme of treatment is chosen individually in each case. It depends on the overall indicators of body condition, age of the patient, the causes of pathology.
Analysis of vaginal smears for the diagnosis Rakau most cases treatment of uterine cancer in women requires surgical intervention (extirpation of the uterus and its appendages, the removal of limfouzel). If necessary complex treatment – surgery with subsequent irradiation therapy.
At stage 1 there is a widespread extirpation of the uterus and vnutrivlagalischnogo irradiation. Preoperative radiation therapy is carried out only on the 3rd stage of the disease. Radiation therapy as an independent method is carried out at a local location of the tumor.
Anticancer drugs effective in identifying high-grade tumors (stage 3-4 disease).
For removal of a malignant tumor doctors perform radiation therapy and surgery.
Treatment is selected taking into account the stage of disease.
If diagnosed with microinvasive cancer, then assigned to the extirpation of the uterus and its appendages. 2-3 stage shows intracavitary or external beam radiation. If the tumor has moved to the pelvic wall, then after irradiation, surgical intervention. On the 3rd stage of the radiotherapy treatment.
On stage 4 (with the appearance of metastases) palliative irradiation is carried out. At this stage, the tumor goes to the bladder. With the diagnosis, the doctor detects distant metastasis. In the last stages of cancer of the uterus the doctor prescribes symptomatic treatment and chemotherapy.
Upon completion of the course of therapy the patient should always be examined by a doctor (for several years). After 5 years of annual examination of the patient. The specialist will examine your pelvic organs, takes swabs, appoints an x-ray of the chest, ultrasound.
At relapse is partial or total pelvic exenteration – the uterus is removed as a single unit. If there are distant metastases (kidney, liver, lung), then receive chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is effective in palliative treatment of painful metastases.
Cervical cancer five-year survival after surgery from 40-45% depending on the stage of the pathology. After surgical treatment, with recurrence women survive in 25% of cases. 4 stage disease five-year survival is observed in 9% of cases.
For the prevention of a malignant tumor doctors advise to visit the doctor 2 times a year since the onset of sexual activity. With regular checkups, ultrasound imaging, cytological studies experts identify precancerous disease.
Precancerous lesions of the cervix is recommended in a timely manner and properly treated. Signs of precancerous lesions is not available. Treatment of precancerous abnormalities of the cervix must be radical:
- it is successful in eradicating;
- amputation of the cervix;
- the application radium treatment.
Radical methods of treatment of cancer reduce the mortality of 6 times.